About kidney stone
Kidney stones are mineral and/or salt deposits that form in the kidneys, harden, and grow over time. They are also referred to as nephrolithiasis or urolithiasis. Kidney stones are a common problem—the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey estimated that 19 percent of male patients and 9 percent of female patients will have experienced a kidney stone by 70 years of age. As such, studies have shown that the prevalence of kidney stones is approximately twice as high in male patients relative to female patients.
Kidney stones are often painful when they pass through the urinary tract. Therefore, it is important to prevent their occurrence, especially if you have already experienced a kidney stone and its often-inconvenient associated symptoms. If you have a kidney stone, your physician may recommend that you strain your urine and save the stone to analyze and determine its composition. There are many different types of stones (ex. Calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, uric acid, etc.), and avoiding foods that are high in the mineral(s) of interest may help prevent future stones. Your physician may also perform bloodwork, imaging tests, and a 24-hour urine collection, especially if an underlying medical condition responsible for stone occurrence is suspected.
How to prevent kidney stone?
1. Drink lots of water:
3. Increase fruit and vegetable intake:
4. Inform your physician:
Apart from these, other non-modifiable risk factors for kidney stones include family history and genetic susceptibility, as well as certain environmental and occupational factors such as warmer climate and geography.
Borghi L et al. (1996) Urinary volume, water and recurrences in idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis: a 5-year randomized prospective study. J Urol 155(3):839-43.
Brikowski TH, Lotan Y, Pearle MS (2008) Climate-related increase in the prevalence of urolithiasis in the United States. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105(28):9841-6.
Ferraro et al. (2013) Soda and other beverages and the risk of kidney stones. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 8(8):1389-95.
Fontenelle LF, Sarti TD. (2019) Kidney stones: Treatment and prevention. Am Fam Physician 99(8):490-6.
Khan SR et al. (2016) Kidney stones. Nat Rev Dis Primers 2:16008.
Meschi T et al. (2004) The effect of fruits and vegetables on urinary stone risk factors. Kidney Int 66(6):2402-10.
Muldowney FP, Freaney R, Moloney MF. (1982) Importance of dietary sodium in the hypercalciuria syndrome. Kidney Int 22(3):292-6.
Soucie JM et al (1996) Relation between geographic variability in kidney stones prevalence and risk factors for stones. Am J Epidemiol 143(5):487-95.
Struggling with Kidney Diseases?
Join Now and schedule your first 60 minutes appointment.