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Diabetes Diet: 4 Helpful Dietitian-recommended Recipes 2022

best prediabetes and diabetes diet

What kind of prediabetes & diabetes diets are recommended by dietitians?

More than a third of the adult US population has prediabetes (34.5% to be exact). And what makes prediabetes scary is that most people do not even know that they are at risk. Of the 88 million adults who have prediabetes, only 15.3% of them are aware that they have it. Therefore, it’s important to receive an annual physical so that your blood glucose level can be monitored.

Prediabetes refers to when the blood glucose is higher than normal but not yet at the level of diabetes. Generally, prediabetes is defined as when the Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level is between 5.7-6.4%. 

The good news is that studies have shown that prediabetes can be reversed by changing eating habits and increasing physical activity. Losing weight in this manner will reduce the hbgA1c level. Diets such as plant-based diet, low fat diet, Mediterranean diet, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, and low carb diet have been known to help achieve these beneficial results. 

high blood pressure DASH diet with salmon

Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet

  • Focuses on fruits, vegetables, low-fat dairy products, whole grains, poultry, fish, nuts 
  • Reduces saturated fat, red meat, sodium, sweets, and sugar-containing beverages 

Blood pressure and blood glucose level go hand-in-hand as about 6 out of 10 people who have diabetes also have high blood pressure; diabetes damages and hardens the arteries, which causes high blood pressure.

The DASH diet program was developed to focus on reducing hypertension. A study of 31 people who participated for 8 weeks in the DASH eating program revealed that the diet helped reduce body weight by an average of 5.0 kg and their waist circumference by 6.7cm along with a sharp reduction in fasting blood glucose level [1]. When this diet was combined with physical activity (such as adding 15-20 minutes walking a day for 5 days a week [2], or 30 minutes of higher intensity activity for 3 times a week [3]), there was even more improvement, not only in weight, blood pressure, and blood glucose levels, but in all lipid markers as well (e.g. reducing cholesterol level). 

prediabetes diet - mediterranean diet with vegetables

Mediterranean diet

  • Focuses on fruits, vegetables, whole grains, olive oil, beans, nuts, legumes and seeds, herbs and spices
  • Recommends eating fish and seafood at least two times a week
  • Recommends Moderate portions of poultry, eggs, cheese, and yogurt
  • Recommends less red meats and sweets, wine in moderation, and lots of drinking water
  • Focuses on minimally processed, seasonally fresh, and locally grown foods 

Studies have shown that the Mediterranean diet does significantly reduce HbA1c levels. For example, in a randomized controlled study [4], 105 participants who participated in a Mediterranean eating pattern for 1 year lost 6.2kg of weight on average and improved their HbA1c levels by an average of 1.2%. When the diet was combined with a low carbohydrate diet for 12 months, there were even more benefits: 194 overweight patients lost 10.1kg on average and improved their HbA1c levels by 2% [5].

 

diabetes diet - low carbohydrate diet with chicken breast

Low carbohydrate diet 

  • Focuses on consuming more protein (meat, poultry, fish, shellfish, eggs, cheese, nuts, and seeds) and more fat (butter, olives, avocado, oils)
  • Focuses on vegetables low in carbohydrates (salad greens, broccoli, cucumbers, summer squash) and fruits low in sugar/carbohydrates (berries) 

Low carbs diets are the probably most popular diabetes diets. Clinical studies of more than 1 year of a low carbohydrate diet showed significant improvements in HbA1c levels, and some studies sustained a meaningful benefit at 2 years. [6] Just as we mentioned above, a low carbohydrate diet combined with the Mediterranean diet produced lower weights and HbA1c levels. However, participants in very low carbohydrate diets (<30g of carbohydrates a day) often drop out since such diets are difficult to keep up due to hunger [7].

🥗 15 g carbohydrate examples

  • 1/3 cup of cooked brown rice
  • ½ English muffins
  • 1 slice of bread
  • ½ cup sweet potatoes
  • 1 small baked potato
  • 3 cups raw vegetables
  • 1.5 cups cooked vegetables
  • 1 kiwi, 1 ¼ cup strawberries
  • 1 cup fat free milk
  • ½ cup ice cream

🥙 An example of eating 60g of carbohydrates in a day 

  • 1 slice of bread with peanut butter for breakfast
  • 3 cups raw vegetables and a piece of chicken breast for lunch
  • 1 small baked potato,1.5 cups cooked vegetables, and a piece of salmon for dinner.

🥪 An example of eating 130g of carbohydrates in a day (scholars define low carbohydrate diet as <130g per day)

  • ½ cup oatmeal with ½ cup low-fat milk, and 1 extra small banana for breakfast (37g total)
  • 1 slice of bread with 1 cup chili, and ¾ cup blueberries for lunch (60g total) 
  • 1/3 cup brown rice, ½ cup cooked vegetables, and a piece of chicken breast for dinner (30g total) 

Plant based diet for diabetes with avocado toast recipes

Plant-based diet 

  • Low in saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium
  • High in fiber, potassium, unsaturated fat including fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, soy products. 

The plant-based diet is most commonly defined as the vegan diet (avoiding all flesh foods and animal derived products including milk and eggs), and vegetarian diet (avoiding all flesh foods but including milk and eggs). A 12-week study performed by Korean researchers compared the results of a vegan diet (46 participants who ate whole grains, vegetables, fruits and legumes) and a conventional diet (47 participants). While both groups showed significant reductions in HbA1c levels, the reductions were larger in the vegan group (0.5% improvement vs. 0.2%) [8]. In addition, a 18-week dietary intervention trial found that a low-fat plant-based diet resulted in a significant reduction in HbA1c levels by 0.7% [9]. 

Even though these studies showed benefits, they were performed over a fairly short period of time (12 weeks or 18 weeks). Plant-based principles have always been useful in promoting good health. Plant-based meals with a small amount of lean red meat, poultry, and fish would provide sufficient nutrition.  

Prediabetes & Diabetes Diets Summary

In summary, the DASH diet, Mediterranean diet, the low carbohydrate diet, and plant-based diet have all proven to be beneficial to prevent and/or control prediabetes. All four diets contain similar concepts: Eat lots of fruits, vegetables, lean proteins (low-fat dairy products, poultry, fish), “good” fat (olive oil, avocado, nuts, seeds), whole grains (but low in carbohydrates), and minimize sodium and sugar consumption. 

Personalized and individualized diet plans, based on your goals and comfort level, are the best way to reduce your blood glucose level.

 

Show References

References

[1] Azadbakht, L., Fard, N. R. P., Karimi, M., Baghaei, M. H., Surkan, P. J., Rahimi, M., … & Willett, W. C. (2011). Effects of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) eating plan on cardiovascular risks among type 2 diabetic patients: a randomized crossover clinical trial. Diabetes care, 34(1), 55-57.

[2] Paula, T. P., Viana, L. V., Neto, A. T., Leitao, C. B., Gross, J. L., & Azevedo, M. J. (2015). Effects of the DASH diet and walking on blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes and uncontrolled hypertension: a randomized controlled trial. The Journal of Clinical Hypertension, 17(11), 895-901.

[3] Blumenthal, J. A., Babyak, M. A., Sherwood, A., Craighead, L., Lin, P. H., Johnson, J., … & Hinderliter, A. (2010). Effects of the dietary approaches to stop hypertension diet alone and in combination with exercise and caloric restriction on insulin sensitivity and lipids. Hypertension, 55(5), 1199-1205.

[4] Esposito, K., Maiorino, M. I., Ciotola, M., Di Palo, C., Scognamiglio, P., Gicchino, M., … & Giugliano, D. (2009). Effects of a Mediterranean-style diet on the need for antihyperglycemic drug therapy in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: a randomized trial. Annals of internal medicine, 151(5), 306-314.

[5] Elhayany, A., Lustman, A., Abel, R., Attal‐Singer, J., & Vinker, S. (2010). A low carbohydrate Mediterranean diet improves cardiovascular risk factors and diabetes control among overweight patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a 1‐year prospective randomized intervention study. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, 12(3), 204-209.

[6] Hallberg, S. J., Gershuni, V. M., Hazbun, T. L., & Athinarayanan, S. J. (2019). Reversing type 2 diabetes: a narrative review of the evidence. Nutrients, 11(4), 766.

[7] Stern, L., Iqbal, N., Seshadri, P., Chicano, K. L., Daily, D. A., McGrory, J., … & Samaha, F. F. (2004). The effects of low-carbohydrate versus conventional weight loss diets in severely obese adults: one-year follow-up of a randomized trial. Annals of internal medicine, 140(10), 778-785.

[8] Lee, Y. M., Kim, S. A., Lee, I. K., Kim, J. G., Park, K. G., Jeong, J. Y., … & Lee, D. H. (2016). Effect of a brown rice based vegan diet and conventional diabetic diet on glycemic control of patients with type 2 diabetes: a 12-week randomized clinical trial. PloS one, 11(6), e0155918.

[9] Mishra, S., Xu, J., Agarwal, U., Gonzales, J., Levin, S., & Barnard, N. D. (2013). A multicenter randomized controlled trial of a plant-based nutrition program to reduce body weight and cardiovascular risk in the corporate setting: the GEICO study. European journal of clinical nutrition, 67(7), 718-724.

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